General Use
MacOSX Server
Fixing problems
Advanced Use

How should I prepare my hard drives to install OSX?
MacOSX should be installed using a three-partition scheme. Click here for more information.

How do I partition my hard drives?
Using Apple's Drive Setup, select the drive to be partitioned, select "Custom Setup" and choose the number of partitions to be created on the drive. Resize the partitions by clicking and dragging them to the preferred size or clicking on them and typing in the preferred size in the text box.

Can I install MacOSX without formatting?
Yes. MacOSX can co-exist on the same partition or drive as MacOS 9.1. Caution should be taken when using this method as MacOSX's classic layer will modify the current OS 9.1 installation and might also make removing OSX from the drive more difficult.

How much RAM do I really need?
MacOSX has been known to run on systems with as little as 64MB RAM. Users actually noted that performance was not largely different than the same system with 128 or even 192MB RAM when not using Classic. Users have also noted that increasing RAM from 256MB to 512MB yielded a very noticeable increase in overall system performance, including Classic operation.

Should I use the latest Firmware Update? I have heard about problems with it and certain brands of RAM.
The issues with the Firmware update and RAM can be cleared up using a utility called DIMM First Aid, which checks the RAM for compatibility with the new Firmware. Also, RAM disabled by the firmware update can be reclaimed with the same utility available at MacOSX is actually not much more picky about RAM than OS9. Always use RAM from a qualified vendor.

Can I install on my upgraded, non-G3 Power Mac?
Yes. Ryan Rempel has made this possible for older hardware including PowerSurge units and G3 upgraded Power Macs. His article is at:

Can I use Third Party drivers on my OSX volume?
Yes, but this is not recommended. Most drives are recognized by the latest version of Drive Setup and OSX was written to use Drive Setup's driver scheme. Use third party drivers with caution.

How do I start the installation?
Either insert the OSX CD into the CD drive while booted into OS9 or use the "C" key at startup to boot from the OSX installation CD. Either method achieves the same goal. Also, using the option key at startup on New World Power Macs will bring up a drive selection utility. Use this method if the CD will not boot using normal methods.

Can I install over the Public beta or a previous version OSX?
No. MacOSX 10.0 should always be installed on a clean drive, where no previous installation of OSX has taken place.

Can I remove OSX from my drive with out formatting?
Yes, The recommended method to remove MacOSX is to format the drive. However, if this is not possible, use OS 9's Finder interface to remove all visible files from the drive that are OSX related, then, using extreme caution, use a utility like File Buddy to remove all invisible OSX related files.

Should I use HFS or UFS?
HFS (Hierarchical File System) is the preferred file system type. UFS (UNIX File System) is included as an option for legacy support and is not intended for the normal OSX user. Using HFS allows the Classic system folder to be stored and run from the same partition as the MacOSX system and enables the use of resource forks, allowing OSX to use MacOS 9's process of linking files to applications on the fly.

Can I install OSX without a CD?
Yes, MacOSX can be installed using an extra partition and a utility called Apple Software Restore. Complete instructions are located here.

I'm having trouble during installation. Where can I go for help?
Apple Computer supports all legitimate installations of MacOSX through their support line. If you prefer not to use Apple Assist you can post your questions read answers on The Matrix, elsewhere on this site.

General Use:
How do I gain root access in MacOSX?
See our tutorial on Gaining root access, located here.

How do I add users to the system?
The easiest method to add a user is through the User system preference panel. Caution should be taken when issuing accounts. Make sure the password will be kept confidential by the user receiving the account. Do not give out administrative access to just anyone. Users can also be added through the command line interface.

What are Cocoa, Carbon and Classic and what are the differences?
All three of these items are application environments. Cocoa, previously called "Yellow Box", the adapted application layer from MacOSX's predecessor, NeXTStep. Cocoa applications are completely native and include several development environments including Java2 and ObjectiveC Cocoa applications can be recognized by the Services menu in the Application menu. Carbon applications use a modified version of the Mac Toolbox development environment and are mostly native. Carbon is a quick way for developers to easily port MacOS applications to MacOSX. Classic applications are applications run in emulation within OSX. These applications can use features and performance when running in emulation and are not protected by MacOSX's advanced memory and application management.

Fixing problems:
I broke something and I can't fix it. What's next?
If you've tried a reboot with no success, try creating a new user and logging in. If the problem is gone, delete files from the /Users/<username>/Library until the problem goes away. If this doesn't work or the new users profile is also broken, try removing the /System directory and reinstalling MacOSX. This will install only missing files and folders and return the system to its default state. All user level preferences will be saved.

Nothing works! Help!
If you've tried the above step or you can't even get in to try, boot into OS9, and delete the /System directory. Then boot with the OSX CD and reinstall the system. Some things will be rearranged but everything should be ok and you can begin adding any customized command line apps and libraries you might have installed previously.

All of my applications are folders. What happened?
This happens sometimes when a previous version of OSX is replaced by a later version instead of a clean install. This can also happen if the user library gets corrupt. To fix this, open the /Users/<username>/Library directory and remove the following files:
See the Tech Info Library article on this subject.

All of the disk images I transfer remotely will not mount. Can I fix them?
Your disk images lost their resource forsk in the transfer. Click here to find out how to recover them.

How do I install MacOSX Updates?
Use the Software Update preference panel to upgrade to the latest version of OSX.

Software Updater says I am already up to date. Why's that?
If you've installed a pre-release updater, delete the package for it in /Library/Receipts (i.e. 10.0.1 updater.pkg) and re run the software update. Also, if you are running an international version of OSX, the US updates come out first and other, localized versions trickle out slowly afterwards. Wait about a day and try again.

My machine constantly disconnects from the internet with error 264. Is there anything I can do?
DP machines rarely stay connected via PPP for more than 20 minutes- more like 5 minutes average before they get a 264 error. This used to result in a kernel panic, but Apple fixed the panic in 10.0.1. The following Open Firmware commands litterally DISABLE one of the processors, turning your DP into a single proc machine. Use caution with these steps. is not responsible for any complications. Thanks to Centauri for the assistance.

1. Boot to open-firmware by holding down option-apple-O-F at startup
Type the following:
That should reboot your machine.
2. Allow the computer to boot...
3. Shut down machine... wait 20-30 seconds...
4. Boot back into Open Firmware.
Type the following:
setenv boot-args cpus

You are now set to one processor. To turn it back on:
1. Boot to Open Firmware
Type the following:
setenv boot-argscpus=1

How can I change my Icons?
Standard MacOSX system level icons are not easy to change. has a good article on how to complete this process here. Changing applications is much easier. The process is basically the same as it was in OS 9. Copy the preferred icon into the Inspector window (Previously the get Info Window) and apply the changes. Icons can be made or downloaded on the Internet.

How do I change my hostname?
By default, MacOSX uses the reverse DNS address of the computer on which it is running. To change this default setting to a custom hostname, type the following command in the terminal:
hostname -s <newhostname>

I miss my pop up windows. Is there a solution?
Yes, Minimize windows to the do then click on them to bring them back. This is a combination of Window shade and popup windows. Also, you can drag an entire folder to the right side of the dock then right-click/control-click or clock and hold to reveal all items within it in a contextual menu. The same can be done with applications. When right clicking an open application, the menu will list all open windows within that application. There is also a third party utility called PopUpX, which adds the pop up window functionality to OSX.

I miss my Application menu. Is there a solution?
The utility Drop drawers adds the functionality of both an Application menu and a Popup windows, which are highly customizable.

I hate the dock. Is there anything I can do to make it better?
There are several options in the dock, which can make it easier to deal with. The best suggestion is to use it as is for a time before making any modifications. It is hard to get used to but can be very powerful, replacing at least 3 different OS 9 features and bundling them all in one location. Use the Dock preferences to handle the size and minimizing of the dock. The dock can also be moved to any side of the screen though slight modification. See how here.

How can I connect to Windows machines?
There are two products available which will allow MacOSX to communicate with Windows machines. Sharity is a client, which allows connectivity to remote PC's. Samba is an SMB (Windows File Sharing) Server and allows full control of domains, browse lists and browesability via the remote PC's Network Neighborhood.

How do I setup Web sharing?
For web sharing, OSX uses apache, a powerful UNIX web server. See here for more information on setting up apache.

How do I setup File sharing?
AppleShare over IP is setup through the Sharing preference panel. Turn sharing on then share directories similar to the manner used in OS 9. Select a directory and get info on it from the File menu. Click to share the directory and its contents and set the privileges.

Where is the FTP Server?
The FTP server can be turned on in the Sharing preference panel. All users are automatically logged into their home folders upon connection.

Can I allow anonymous FTP access?
Yes, click here for a How-To on this topic.

What is NFS? How do I use it?
NFS is Network File System, a UNIX file sharing protocol. It can be used to share directories and drives across the internet via TCP or UDP and can be set to connect to remote shares at boot time. NFS can be accessed through the command line, NetInfo Manager or a neat Utility called NFS Manager. Check for details.

What is SSH and why do I need it?
SSH stands for Secure Shell. It is used to replace the traditional telnet server on a UNIX machine and allows truly secure remote connectivity.

How can I get SSH?
SSH is now included with the MacOSX 10.0.1 updater. Install this update and turn on the service through the sharing preference panel's option for Allowing remote connections.

I am having trouble connecting to other machines via SSH since I updated to 10.0.4. Why?
The latest version of SSH is not completely compatible with other version of SSH included with some newer Linux distributions. Specify an SSH type 1 connection by using the -1 flag in your ssh connection command or
click here to obtain the latest SSH source and install it in one simple step. Type sh as root to initiate the script.

MacOSX Server:
What is the difference between MacOSX and MacOSX Server?
MacOSX Server is essentially MacOSX with slight modifications to make it easier to administer as a multiple user platform as well as several new server daemons that extend the capability of OSX into the enterprise server level.

Can I install OSX Server over top of OSX?
This is not recommended. Enough has changed between OSX and OSX Server to necessitate a clean install.

Advanced Use:
What are shells?
Shells are programs used to allow the user and the kernel to speak directly through a series of commands. Shells provide direct, 2-way communication to the core of the operating system.

How do I install a GCC compiler?
You do not technically need a GCC compiler. MacOSX comes with a modified version of GCC which Apple has renamed to "CC". This compiler is customized for OSX's file structure. Some configures might not work directly with the OSX compiler, however. Top get around this, modify or create an "/etc/make.conf" file with "CFLAGS=-traditional-cpp" in it. This saves having to put it in each Makefile.

How do I get into console mode?
In order to get into the console, log out and type ">console" as the login name. This will open up a direct command line interface with the OS.

How do I create a .cshrc file?
You must create a file in the terminal with your favorite text editor. Click here for more information.

How do I add paths to my PATH variables?
See above.

How do I alias UNIX commands?
See above.

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